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  25. Omani law provides for a copyright duration of 70 years after the death of the author since 2008, prior to this the copyright duration was only 50 years after the death of the author, and as the new law explicitly provides that it does not apply to works already in the public domain, this work remains in the public domain.
  26. Part I, Ch. 1.
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  28. “striking thirteen” (1 00 pm). In Nineteen Eighty Four, the 24 hour clock is modern, the 12 hour clock is old fashioned, Part I, Ch. 8.
  29. “Under the spreading chestnut tree”. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  30. Anne Gilchrist said it is “a version of an old English tune called ‘Go no more a rushing’, which was arranged for virginals by William Byrd and Giles Farnaby by the latter under the title of ‘Tell mee, Daphne’ … So ‘Under the Spreading Chestnut Tree’ is really an Old English perhaps originally a dance tune, preserved traditionally and lately modernized.”
  31. Anne G. Gilchrist, “‘Under the Spreading Chestnut Tree’ The Adventures of a Tune.” The Musical Times, Vol. 81 (Mar. 1940), pp. 112 113.
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  35. cite lines 29 35, page 229, Chapter X, Part II of the Penguin paperback edition of 1984 “The proles were immortal, you could not doubt it when you looked at that valiant figure in the yard. In the end their awakening would come. And until that happened, though it might be a thousand years, they would stay alive against all the odds, like birds, passing on from body to body the vitality which the Party did not share and could not kill.”
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E-cigarettes in jail are win-win for inmates, cash-strapped jails in tennessee

Discount cigarettes & lighters in wilmington delaware

A number of county jails in Tennessee, particularly Sumner and Rutherford counties, are allowing inmates to “smoke” electronic cigarettes (e cigarettes) in order to help control and calm an otherwise difficult to control and anything but calm population.

And perhaps equally important, these relatively new gadgets are providing a significant revenue stream for Tennessee&#39 s cash strapped county jails.

E cigarettes are disposable cigarettes that usually cost the inmates between $9 and $15 each. They are cylindric cartridges that can be made to mimic the look and feel of actual cigarettes. They contain no actual tobacco but deliver a shot of nicotine (tobacco&#39 s key and addictive ingredient) to the user via a low voltage battery. And, rather than exhaling dangerous or noxious smoke, only harmless water vapor is emitted after each “pull” or puff on the e cigarette cartridge.

Interestingly, although at least five Tennessee county jails are allowing e cigarettes into their facilities, Tennessee&#39 s prison system has not yet jumped onto this particular bandwagon.

Still, e cigarettes popularity is growing nationwide. E cigarette companies actually set up booths and exhibits at a 2013 Tennessee Sheriffs Association conference, one of which sported a huge banner which read “Earn $1000s for your jail.”

As reported by The Tennessean, it was just last month when Sumner County first allowed its jail inmates to order e cigarettes as a commissary item for $14.45 each. They are provided by a Georgia based company called JailCigs, which sells its “product” only to jails and prisons.

Each e cigarette provides about 500 puffs, or the equivalent of two to three packs of cigarettes. In Tennessee, a pack of cigarettes costs about $6.

The payoff for Sumner County is substantial. It gets $5 for each and every e cigarette sold.

Sonya Troutt is Sumner County Sheriff s Office s jail administrator. She is quoted in The Tennessean as saying that JailCigs and other jails experiences convinced her that these things had no negative effects and were, in fact, a net positive. That is, they reduce tension in a tension filled environment while almost completely eliminating at least one whole class of contraband.

“After speaking to some of the other jails,” she said, “they felt like it had reduced stress levels for some of the inmates, especially some of the smokers. I just felt like all around it would be much better and hopefully cut down on the smuggling of tobacco products and other contraband.”

Rutherford County Sheriff Robert Arnold has allowed e cigarettes in his jail since late last year through JailCigs. There has been a decided drop in fights at the jail, he told The Tennessean.

“We thought this would be a good tool to help inmates who are addicted to nicotine,” Arnold said. “When they come to the jail, they are anxious. They tend to be short tempered. The e cigarettes allow them to still have nicotine and not be as short tempered.”

But calmer inmates and more revenue do not convince everyone. For example, Davidson County Sheriff Daron Hall does not think that money should be a motivating factor in any jail.

He prefers rehabilitation and/or education of inmates as the principal means of reorienting them back into society, because except for those who do go on to “the big house” or similar “facilities,” most county jail inmates will eventually be released back to the streets.

“I don t see enough reasons to do it,” he said.

And Sharon Puckett is spokeswoman for the Williamson County Sheriff s Office, where e cigarettes are not allowed in that jail, either.

“It s strictly safety and security and not on the allowed list for inmates,” she said.

Alex Friedman is considered a “watchdog” as to incarceration issues. He objects to e cigarettes but from an addiction standpoint.

“My personal position is that jails don t need to be in the business of encouraging addictive behaviors,” Friedman said.

“E cigarettes deliver nicotine just like regular cigarettes, only without the smoke (and arguably without the health problems). But they are still nicotine delivery systems,” he says. Friedman also notes that nicotine is perhaps the most addictive substance known to man and that “jails are not providing alcohol to alcoholics or meth to meth addicts.”

What exactly is in e cigarettes?

At this writing, there are no national “standards” for the contents of e cigarettes. So contents vary by brand. But generally the main ingredients are nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin, flavoring, benzene and trace amounts of ethanol and cyclohexene.

Now, compared to “regular” cigarettes that mixture is a veritable delicious cocktail. The American Lung Association claims that normal cigarettes contain from 600 to 3,000 chemicals, including, but certainly not limited to acetone, ammonia, arsenic, benzene, butane, cadmium, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, lead, methanol, tar, , yes, nicotine.

Other states are just beginning to grapple with this issue. Illinois is rapidly moving to ban the sale of e cigarettes to children and to require strict packaging standards.

The Chicago City Council has already banned “smoking” of e cigarettes in all public venues just as it bans regular smoking.

At this writing, however, there is no word whether e cigarettes will be allowed into this nation state&#39 s second largest jail, Chicago&#39 s Cook County Jail.